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What is superstructure and substructure in the building construction?

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-04-26      Origin: Site

  • What is superstructure and substructure in the building construction?

  • What are the types of substructure and superstructure?

  • What are their differences?

  • What are the components of substructure in a building?




Generally, there are two main types combing to make a complete building construction: the substructure and the superstructure.

The substructure is the part of the building that is built below the ground level, and superstructure is the part of the structure that is constructed above the ground level.

Superstructure

The superstructure is the portion of a building which is constructed above the ground level and it serves the purpose of structure's intended use. It includes columns, beams, slab upwards including all finishes, door and window, flooring, roofing and parapets.

Substructure

The substructure is the lower part of a building which is constructed below the ground level. The function of substructure is the transfer of loads from the superstructure to the underlying soil. So, the substructure is in direct contact with supporting soil. Substructure involves footing and plinth of a building.


Differences between superstructure and substructure of a building

Superstructure

Substructure

Part of a building that constructed above   ground level

Portion of a building that constructed   below ground level

It serves the purpose of building's   intended use

It transfers loads received from   superstructure to supporting soil

Superstructure elements include walls,   columns, beams, doors and windows, etc.

Elements of substructure include   foundation and plinth


Now, let's discuss the components of the substructure of building construction.

The basic components that are required for the substructure of a building include the foundation and plinth beam.

Foundation

The foundation helps to transfer the dead loads, live loads, and other loads coming towards the underlying soil.

Foundation is made in such a way that the soil over it lays stressed within its safe bearing capacity.

Hence, in this way, different building structures require different types of foundations that can be deep or shallow.

The soil profile is investigated thoroughly by a geotechnical engineer and it is finalized before adding a suitable foundation in the building structure.

There are different types of foundations that are commonly used for building structure:

Strip Foundation (Shallow Foundation)

Raft Foundation (Shallow Foundation)

Pile Foundation (Deep Foundation)

Plinth Beam

Plinth Beam is made in the plinth level between the wall and the foundation. It is used for the concrete beams that are constructed to avoid the cracks and other such problems from the foundations towards the walls.

A plinth beam also helps us to transfer and distribute the load of work from walls to foundations.


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